Important Sections Related to income from Business and Professions
The following income shall be chargeable to income-tax under the head "Profits and gains of business or profession", -
(i) The profits and gains of any business or profession which was carried on by the assessee at any time during the previous year;
(iv) The value of any benefit or perquisite, whether convertible into money or not, arising from business or the exercise of a profession;
(v) Any interest, salary, bonus, commission or remuneration, by whatever name called, due to, or received by, a partner of a firm from such firm :
Provided that where any interest, salary, bonus, commission or remuneration, by whatever name called, or any part thereof has not been allowed to be deducted under clause
(b) Of section 40, the income under this clause shall be adjusted to the extent of the amount not so allowed to be deducted;
Explanation 1 : Where speculative transactions carried on by an assessee are of such a nature as to constitute a business, the business (hereinafter referred to as "speculation business") shall be deemed to be distinct and separate from any other business.
INCOME FROM PROFITS AND GAINS OF BUSINESS OR PROFESSION, HOW COMPUTED.
The income referred to in section 28 shall be computed in accordance with the provisions contained in sections 30 to 43D.
RENT, RATES, TAXES, REPAIRS AND INSURANCE FOR BUILDINGS.
REPAIRS AND INSURANCE OF MACHINERY, PLANT AND FURNITURE.
EXPENDITURE ON ACQUISITION OF PATENT RIGHTS OR COPYRIGHTS.
(1) The deductions provided for in the following clauses shall be allowed in respect of the matters dealt with therein, in computing the income referred to in section 28 - (i) The amount of any premium paid in respect of insurance against risk of damage or destruction of stocks or stores used for the purposes of the business or profession;
(ia) The amount of any premium paid by a federal milk co-operative society to effect or to keep in force an insurance on the life of the cattle owned by a member of a co-operative society, being a primary society engaged in supplying milk raised by its members to such federal milk co-operative society;
(ib) The amount of any premium paid by cheque by the assessee as an employer to effect or to keep in force an insurance on the health of his employees under a scheme framed in this behalf by the General Insurance Corporation of India formed under section 9 of the General Insurance Business (Nationalisation) Act, 1972 (57 of 1972), and approved by the Central Government;
(ii) Any sum paid to an employee as bonus or commission for services rendered, where such sum would not have been payable to him as profits or dividend if it had not been paid as bonus or commission;
(iia) A sum equal to one and one-third times the amount of the expenditure incurred on payment of any salary for any period of employment before the 1st day of March, 1984 to an employee who, as at the end of the previous year, - (a) Is totally blind, or
(b) Is subject to or suffers from a permanent physical disability (other than blindness) which has the effect of reducing substantially his capacity to engage in a gainful employment or occupation :
Provided that the assessee produces before the Assessing Officer, in respect of the first assessment year for which deduction is claimed in relation to each such employee under this clause, - (i) In a case referred to in sub-clause (a), a certificate as to his total blindness from a registered medical practitioner being an oculist; and
(ii) In a case referred to in sub-clause (b), a certificate as to the permanent physical disability referred to in the said sub-clause from a registered medical practitioner :
Provided further that nothing contained in this clause shall apply in the case of an employee whose income in the previous year chargeable under the head "Salaries" exceeds twenty thousand rupees.
Explanation 1 : In this clause, "salary" includes the pay, allowances, bonus or commission payable monthly or otherwise.
Explanation 2 : For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that where a deduction under this clause is allowed for any assessment year in respect of any expenditure, deduction shall not be allowed in respect of such expenditure under any other provision of this Act for the same or any other assessment year; 575 ]
(iii) The amount of the interest paid in respect of capital borrowed for the purposes of the business or profession.
Explanation : Recurring subscriptions paid periodically by shareholders or subscribers in Mutual Benefit Societies which fulfil such conditions as may be prescribed, shall be deemed to be capital borrowed within the meaning of this clause;
(iv) Any sum paid by the assessee as an employer by way of contribution towards a recognised provident fund or an approved superannuation fund, subject to such limits as may be prescribed 579 for the purpose of recognising the provident fund or approving the superannuation fund, as the case may be; and subject to such conditions 580 as the Board may think fit to specify in cases where the contributions are not in the nature of annual contributions of fixed amounts or annual contributions fixed on some definite basis by reference to the income chargeable under the head "Salaries" or to the contributions or to the numbers of members of the fund;
(v) Any sum paid by the assessee as an employer by way of contribution towards an approved gratuity fund created by him for the exclusive benefit of his employees under an irrevocable trust;
(va) Any sum received by the assessee from any of his employees to which the provisions of sub-clause (x) of clause (24) of section 2 apply, if such sum is credited by the assessee to the employee's account in the relevant fund or funds on or before the due date.
(vi) In respect of animals which have been used for the purposes of the business or profession otherwise than as stock-in-trade and have died or become permanently useless for such purposes, the difference between the actual cost to the assessee of the animals and the amount, if any, realised in respect of the carcasses or animals;
(vii) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (2), the amount of any bad debt or part thereof which is written off as irrecoverable in the accounts of the assessee for the previous year:
Provided that in the case of an assessee to which clause (viia) applies, the amount of the deduction relating to any such debt or part thereof shall be limited to the amount by which such debt or part thereof exceeds the credit balance in the provision for bad and doubtful debts account made under that clause;
(viia) In respect of any provision for bad and doubtful debts made by - (a) A scheduled bank not being a bank incorporated by or under the laws of a country outside India or a non-scheduled bank, an amount not exceeding five per cent of the total income (computed before making any deduction under this clause and Chapter VI-A) and an amount not exceeding [ 585c ten per cent of the aggregate average advances made by the rural branches of such bank computed in the prescribed manner;
Provided that a scheduled bank or a non-scheduled bank referred to in this sub-clause shall, at its option, be allowed in any of the relevant assessment years, deduction in respect of any provision made by it for any assets classified by the Reserve Bank of India as doubtful assets or loss assets in accordance with the guidelines issued by it in this behalf, for an amount not exceeding five per cent. of the amount of such assets shown in the books of account of the bank on the last day of the previous year.
(b) A bank, being a bank incorporated by or under the laws of a country outside India, an amount not exceeding five per cent of the total income (computed before making any deduction under this clause and Chapter VI-A);
(c) A public financial institution or a State financial corporation or a State industrial investment corporation, an amount not exceeding five per cent of the total income (computed before making any deduction under this clause and Chapter VI-A).
(viii) In respect of any special reserve created and maintained by a financial corporation which is engaged in providing long-term finance for industrial or agricultural development or development of infrastructure facility in India or by a public company formed and registered in India with the main object of carrying on the business of providing long-term finance for construction or purchase of houses in India for residential purposes, an amount not exceeding forty per cent of the profits derived from such business of providing long-term finance (computed under the head "Profits and gains of business or profession" before making any deduction under this clause 590a ]) carried to such reserve account :
Provided that the corporation or as the case may be the company is for the time being approved by the Central Government for the purposes of clause :
Provided further that where the aggregate of the amounts carried to such reserve account from time to time exceeds twice the amount of the paid up share capital and general reserves of the corporation or, as the case may be, the company, no allowance under this clause shall be made in respect of such excess;
(ix) Any expenditure bona fide incurred by a company for the purpose of promoting family planning amongst its employees :
Provided that where such expenditure or any part thereof is of a capital nature, one-fifth of such expenditure shall be deducted for the previous year in which it was incurred; and the balance thereof shall be deducted in equal instalments for each of the four immediately succeeding previous years :
Provided further that the provisions of sub-section (2) of section 32 or sub-section (2) of section 72 shall apply in relation to deductions allowable under this clause as they apply in relation to deductions allowable in respect of depreciation :
Provided further that the provisions of clauses (ii), (iii), (iv) and (v) of sub-section (2) and sub-section (5) of section 35, of sub-section (3) of section 41 and of Explanation 1 to clause (1) of section 43 shall, so far as may be, apply in relation to an asset representing expenditure of a capital nature for the purposes of promoting family planning as they apply in relation to an asset representing expenditure of a capital nature on scientific research;
(x) Any sum paid by a public financial institution by way of contribution towards any fund specified under clause (23E) of section 10.
Explanation : For the purposes of this clause, "public financial institution" shall have the meaning assigned to it in section 4A of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956).
(xi) Any expenditure incurred by the assessee, on or after the 1st day of April, 1999 but before the 1st day of April, 2000, wholly and exclusively in respect of a non-Y2K compliant computer system, owned by the assessee and used for the purposes of his business or profession, so as to make such computer system Y2K compliant computer system :
Provided that no such deduction shall be allowed in respect of such expenditure under any other provisions of this Act :
Provided further that no such deduction shall be admissible unless the assessee furnishes in the prescribed form, along with the return of income, the report of an accountant, as defined in the Explanation below sub-section (2) of section 288, certifying that the deduction has been correctly claimed in accordance with the provisions of this clause.
Explanation. - For the purposes of this clause, - (a) "Computer system" means a device or collection of devices including input and output support devices and excluding calculators which are not programmable and capable of being used in conjunction with external files, or more of which contain computer programmes, electronic instructions, input data and output data, that performs functions including, but not limited to, logic, arithmetic, data storage and retrieval, communication and control;
(b) "Y2K compliant computer system" means a computer system capable of correctly processing, providing or receiving data relating to date within and between the twentieth and twenty-first century.
(2) In making any deduction for a bad debt or part thereof, the following provisions shall apply - (i) No such deduction shall be allowed unless such debt or part thereof has been taken into account in computing the income of the assessee of the previous year in which the amount of such debt or part thereof is written off or of an earlier previous year, or represents money lent in the ordinary course of the business of banking or money-lending which is carried on by the assessee;
(ii) If the amount ultimately recovered on any such debt or part of debt is less than the difference between the debt or part and the amount so deducted, the deficiency shall be deductible in the previous year in which the ultimate recovery is made;
(iii) Any such debt or part of debt may be deducted if it has already been written off as irrecoverable in the accounts of an earlier previous year (being a previous year relevant to the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1988, or any earlier assessment year), but the Assessing Officer had not allowed it to be deducted on the ground that it had not been established to have become a bad debt in that year;
(iv) Where any such debt or part of debt is written off as irrecoverable in the accounts of the previous year (being a previous year relevant to the assessment year commencing on the 1st day of April, 1988, or any earlier assessment year) and the Assessing Officer is satisfied that such debt or part became a bad debt in any earlier previous year not falling beyond a period of four previous years immediately preceding the previous year in which such debt or part is written off, provisions of sub-section (6) of section 155 shall apply;
(v) Where such debt or part of debt relates to advances made by an assessee to which clause (viia) of sub-section (1) applies, no such deduction shall be allowed unless the assessee has debited the amount of such debt or part of debt in that previous year to the provision for bad and doubtful debts account made under that clause.
(1) Any expenditure (not being expenditure of the nature described in sections 30 to 36 and not being in the nature of capital expenditure or personal expenses of the assessee), laid out or expended wholly and exclusively for the purposes of the business or profession shall be allowed in computing the income chargeable under the head "Profits and gains of business or profession".